Radiology Notes

My notes during radiology residency, fellowship, and beyond…

Archive for the ‘neuro’ Category

Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration

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Written by lmwong

May 8, 2012 at 12:56 pm

Posted in neuro, pediatrics

Status Marmoratus

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Status marmoratus is the presence in full-term infants of basal nucleus lesions resulting from acute total asphyxia. The lesions have a marbled appearance caused by neuronal loss and an overgrowth of myelin in the putamen, caudate, and thalamus.  – wiki

Link about HIE

Another good link about HIE

Written by lmwong

April 12, 2012 at 12:09 pm

Posted in basal ganglia, head, neuro

Tagged with

Etat Crible

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  • dilatation of perivascular spaces around cerebral arterioles in the basal ganglia of elderly people
  • associated with vascular parkinsonism

link
link

Written by lmwong

April 12, 2012 at 8:13 am

Posted in neuro

Persistent fetal origin of PCA

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The best picture of persistent fetal origin of the PCA I can find on the net…

  • PCA originates from ICA, rather than basilar artery
  • 15% of people

Written by lmwong

April 9, 2012 at 8:45 am

Posted in carotid, neuro

Categories and Causes of Hydrocephalus

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Pediatric specific causes of hydrocephalus…

Written by lmwong

March 25, 2012 at 10:48 am

Pituitary Hyperplasia

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  • convex superior margin of pituitary
  • upper limits of normal CC dimension
    • lactating women: 12 mm
    • menstruating women: 10 mm
    • males/postmenopause: 8 mm
    • infants: 6 mm
  • DDx: Turner, Klinefilters, hypothyroidis, Addison, end-organ failure.
Source: StatDX
Link: http://www.ajnr.org/content/18/3/551.full.pdf
Link: http://radiology.rsna.org/content/213/2/383.full
.

Written by lmwong

November 3, 2011 at 2:31 pm

Posted in neuro, upper

Disc Disease Nomenclature

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Divide axial disc into 4 quadrants of 25%:

Focal Herniation = <25% [pic] (protusion type or extrusion type) [pic]

Broad based Herniation = 25-50% [pic]

Bulge = >50% normal disc circumference.

Symmetric Disc Bulging = 100% [pic]

Link

Written by lmwong

January 5, 2011 at 4:00 pm

Posted in classification, neuro, spine

Spinal Mass Differential

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A. Intradural, Intramedullary: astrocytoma, ependymoma, hemangioma, cavernoma, dermoid/epidermoid
B. Intradural, Extramedullary:  nerve sheath tumors, meningioma
C. Extradural: bone neoplasm, mets, abscess, TB, hematoma, disk, synovial cyst, lipomatosis, neuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma

Written by lmwong

December 17, 2010 at 1:14 pm

Posted in differential, neuro, tumor

AVM Spetzler-Martin Grading System

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Size (largest diameter of nidus)

  • ❤ cm = 1
  • 3-6 cm = 2
  • >6 cm = 3

Eloquence (areas of sensorimotor, language, visual, thalamus, hypothalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, cerebellar peduncles, and deep cerebellar nuclei)

  • Noneloquent = 0
  • Eloquent = 1

Venous Drainage

  • Superficial only = 0
  • Deep component = 1

Add the 3 categories to get Spetzler-Martin Grade 1-5.

emedicine

Written by lmwong

October 20, 2010 at 7:39 am

Orbital Calcifications

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  • retinoblastoma
  • astrocytic hamartoma
  • choroidal osteomas
  • phthisis bulbi
  • drusen
  • prior retinal detachment
  • retinopathy of prematurity
  • Sturge-Weber
  • von Hippel-Lindau
  • infection: toxocara, CMV

Case Review Series

Written by lmwong

October 19, 2010 at 8:12 am

Posted in differential, eye, neuro, orbit

Dysmyelinating White Matter Disease

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Macrocephaly

  • Canavan’s disease
  • Alexander’s disease

Frontal Lobe predilection

  • Alexander’s disease

Occipital Lobe predilection

  • Adrenoleukodystrophy

Contrast enhancement

  • Adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Alexander’s disease

Hyperdense basal ganglia

  • Krabbe’s disease

leukodystrophies

Written by lmwong

March 24, 2010 at 2:24 pm

Posted in differential, neuro

Vertebra Plana MELTs

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  • Metastasis, myeloma
  • Eosinophilic granuloma
  • Lymphoma
  • Trauma / TB

Written by lmwong

March 22, 2010 at 8:22 pm

Posted in bone, differential, msk, neuro, spine

IAC Mass

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  • acoustic neuroma
  • facial neuroma
  • hemangioma
  • lipoma
  • meningioma
  • epidermoid

Written by lmwong

February 19, 2010 at 11:05 am

Posted in differential, ent, head, neuro

Vascular Mass in Middle Ear

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  • Glomus tympanicum
  • Aberrant carotid artery
  • carotid artery aneurysm
  • persistent stapedial artery
  • exposed jugular bulb
  • exposed carotid artery
  • hemangioma
  • extensive glomus jugulare

Written by lmwong

February 19, 2010 at 11:04 am

Posted in differential, ent, head, neuro

Intramedullary Spinal Mass

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  • astrocytoma (MC)
  • ependymoma
  • hemangioblastoma
  • metastasis
  • MS or ADEM

Written by lmwong

February 12, 2010 at 8:46 pm

Posted in differential, neuro, spine

Absent Septum Pelluicium

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  • Holoprosencephaly
  • Septooptic Dysplasia

Written by lmwong

February 12, 2010 at 11:50 am

Parkinson’s Disease

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  • dark substantia nigra and red nucleus on T2

Written by lmwong

February 7, 2010 at 1:35 pm

Posted in neuro

Pineal Tumors

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  • Germ cell tumors, >50%
    • Germinoma (MC)
    • Teratoma
    • Embryonal cell carcinoma
    • Choriocarcinoma
  • Pineal cell tumors, 25%
    • Pineocytoma
    • Pineoblastoma
  • Glioma
  • Other
    • Meningioma
    • Metastases
    • Epidermoid/dermoid
    • arachnoid cyst

Written by lmwong

February 7, 2010 at 6:50 am

Brain Edema

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Vasogenic

  • White matter
  • tumor, trauma, hemorrhage

Cytotoxic

  • Gray and white matter
  • ischemia and infection

Written by lmwong

February 6, 2010 at 1:27 pm

Posted in differential, neuro

Neuro, Head and Neck Buzz Words

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  • leading edge enhancement demyelination = ADL
  • Longhorn lateral ventricles = absent corpus callosum
  • Peg-like tonsils = Chiari I malformation
  • heart shaped cerebellum/banana sign = Chiari II malformation
  • lemon sign = Chiari II malformation
  • Batwing frontal horns = Chiari II malformation
  • Trident anterior horns = Corpus Callosum agenesis
  • Dural tail/pancake spread = meningioma
  • GM lining ventricle = hetertopia
  • Dawson’s fingers = MS
  • exlpoded clacifications = pineoblastoma
  • bilateral acoustic neuromas = NF2
  • ice cream cone sign = acoustic schwannoma
  • pial (mural) nodule = cerebellar hemangioblastoma
  • frontotemporal atrophy = Pick’s disease
  • boxcar frontal horns = Huntington’s chorea
  • Plaquelike dural thickening = neurosarcoidosis
  • Mickey Mouse ears = ballooning of temporal horns = hydrocephalus
  • white matter disease post viral/vaccination = ADEM
  • white matter disease + macrocephaly = Alexanders or Canavans disease
  • Monoventricle = Alobar Holoprosencephaly
  • Ipsilateral skull thickening = Dyke Davidoff (cerebral hemiatrophy)
  • smooth brain = lissencephaly
  • keyhole deformity = Dandy-Walker variant
  • multiple hemangioblastomas = von Hippel Lindau
  • tramtrack cortical calcification = Sturge Weber
  • Gibbus deformity = Pott’s disease
  • cap sign = hemosiderin at ends of tumor = spinal ependymoma
  • popcorn lesion = Cavernous Malformation
  • Puff of Smoke = Moyamoya
  • comet-tail artifacts = colloid cysts
  • tram-track cortical calcification = Sturge-Weber

Written by lmwong

February 1, 2010 at 2:59 pm

Posted in buzz, neuro