Radiology Notes

My notes during radiology residency, fellowship, and beyond…

Archive for the ‘differential’ Category

Aspergillosis Spectrum

leave a comment »


  • fungus ball
  • preexisting cavity, bulla, bronchiectasis
  • saprophytic
  • sarcoidosis, CF
  • Hemoptysis
  • round opacity within cyst or cavity
  • air crescent
  • mobile
  • pleural thickening

Semiinvasive Aspergillosis

  • Mildly immunosuppressed hosts
  • focal consolidation > cavity > air crescent > thick-walled cyst > fungus ball

Invasive Aspergillosis

  • Immunocompromised hosts
  • granulocytopenia
  • single or multiple nodules
  • cavitation
  • air crescent
  • “Halo” sign on CT

Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

  • Hypersensitiviy reaction to aspergillus in mucous plugs
  • mucoid impaction
  • asthmatic patients
  • lobar consolidation
  • chronic, upper lobe scarring and bronchiectasis

Written by lmwong

October 8, 2013 at 9:12 pm

Posted in chest, differential

Vascular Anomalies, ISSVA Classification

with one comment

2 categories: vascular tumors or vascular malformations. Distinction determines therapy.

Vascular Tumors

  • infantile hemangiomas: grow rapidly after birth, GLUT1+
  • congenital hemangiomas (RICH and NICH): fully mature at birth, GLUT1-
  • Tufted angioma
  • Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma
  • Spindle cell hemangioendotheliomas
  • Dermatologic acquired vascular tumors

Vascular malformations (slow)

  • capillary malformation (port-wine stain, telangiectasia, angiokeratoma)
  • venous malformation
  • lymphatic malformation

Vascular malformations (fast)

  • arterial malformation
  • arteriovenous fistula
  • arteriovenous malformation

PDF link

Written by lmwong

April 23, 2012 at 12:57 pm

Categories and Causes of Hydrocephalus

leave a comment »

Pediatric specific causes of hydrocephalus…

Written by lmwong

March 25, 2012 at 10:48 am

Spinal Mass Differential

with one comment

A. Intradural, Intramedullary: astrocytoma, ependymoma, hemangioma, cavernoma, dermoid/epidermoid
B. Intradural, Extramedullary:  nerve sheath tumors, meningioma
C. Extradural: bone neoplasm, mets, abscess, TB, hematoma, disk, synovial cyst, lipomatosis, neuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma

Written by lmwong

December 17, 2010 at 1:14 pm

Posted in differential, neuro, tumor

Bankart and Bankart variant lesion

leave a comment »

Classification of Bankart and Bankart variant lesions. a Bankart lesion, b bony Bankart lesion, c Perthes lesion, d ALPSA (anterior labro-ligamentous periosteal sleeveavulsion) lesion, e GLAD (glenolabral articular disruption) lesion, f HAGL (humeralavulsion of glenohumeral ligaments) lesion. (LLC anteroinferior labro-ligamentous complex, P scapular periosteum, HH humeral head, AC articular cartilage of glenoid,IGHL inferior glenohumeral ligament)

Written by lmwong

December 12, 2010 at 10:33 am

Skeletal Dysplasia

leave a comment »

Differential diagnoses of skeletal dysplasias
based on clinical, radiographic and ultrasound findings.


Skull Thorax Limbs Spine Pelvis
Achondrogenesis Type IA (Houston-Harris) poorly ossified short, round chest with multiple rib fractures very short, broad tibiae & fibulae, wedge-like femora with proximal metaphyseal


unossified vertebral bodies hypoplastic arch-like iliac bones

with short vertical ischia

Achondrogenesis Type IB (Fraccaro), poorly ossified short chest with thin ribs, cupped ends, no fractures very short

with trapeziod femora, crenated tibiae, unossified fibulae


vertebral bodies

hypoplastic crenated iliae
Achondrogenesis Type II


large calvarium with posterior ossification defect barrel-shaped, with short ribs very short with mild-moderate metaphyseal

changes, long fibulae

thoracolumbar ossification short iliae,

flat acetabular roots, unossified pubic bones, ossified ischia

Kniest dysplasia frontal flattening, maxillary hypoplasia,

shallow orbits

short ribs club-like metaphyses, delayed ossification

of femoral heads

diffuse flattening, coronal clefts small ilia,

increased acetabular angles with irregular edges

Thanatophoric dwarfism frontal bossing+ clover-leaf


narrow, pear-shaped, short, bowed, with metaphyseal flaring


normal ossification small sacrosciatic notches, spiculated acetabulum
Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Type II soft and membranous flail

chest at birth

short fracture liability normal
Achondroplasia megalocephaly slight rib flaring rhizomelic,

with leg bowing, trident hands

thoracolumbar kyphosis, lordosis


short iliac wings
Hypochondroplasia normal normal short vertebral canal


Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia normal short barrel chest, +

pectus carinatum

mild rhizomelic shortening with bowing severe kyphoscoliosis


retarded ossification of pubic bones
Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia Normal narrow, long, short

anteriorly cupped ribs

+ post-axial polydactyly,

variably short

normal square, short iliae, flat acetabulae
Hypophosphatasia thin and membranous markedly reduced ossification, short short with bowing, long bones are frayed poor ossification

with hypoplastic vertebrae


Written by lmwong

November 14, 2010 at 8:35 pm

Orbital Calcifications

leave a comment »

  • retinoblastoma
  • astrocytic hamartoma
  • choroidal osteomas
  • phthisis bulbi
  • drusen
  • prior retinal detachment
  • retinopathy of prematurity
  • Sturge-Weber
  • von Hippel-Lindau
  • infection: toxocara, CMV

Case Review Series

Written by lmwong

October 19, 2010 at 8:12 am

Posted in differential, eye, neuro, orbit