Radiology Notes

My notes during radiology residency, fellowship, and beyond…

Archive for the ‘classification’ Category

Vascular Anomalies, ISSVA Classification

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2 categories: vascular tumors or vascular malformations. Distinction determines therapy.

Vascular Tumors

  • infantile hemangiomas: grow rapidly after birth, GLUT1+
  • congenital hemangiomas (RICH and NICH): fully mature at birth, GLUT1-
  • Tufted angioma
  • Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma
  • Spindle cell hemangioendotheliomas
  • Dermatologic acquired vascular tumors

Vascular malformations (slow)

  • capillary malformation (port-wine stain, telangiectasia, angiokeratoma)
  • venous malformation
  • lymphatic malformation

Vascular malformations (fast)

  • arterial malformation
  • arteriovenous fistula
  • arteriovenous malformation

PDF link

Written by lmwong

April 23, 2012 at 12:57 pm

Disc Disease Nomenclature

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Divide axial disc into 4 quadrants of 25%:

Focal Herniation = <25% [pic] (protusion type or extrusion type) [pic]

Broad based Herniation = 25-50% [pic]

Bulge = >50% normal disc circumference.

Symmetric Disc Bulging = 100% [pic]


Written by lmwong

January 5, 2011 at 4:00 pm

Posted in classification, neuro, spine

Lung Cancer Staging

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New 7th Edition of for Lung Cancer Staging, Radiographics Sept 2010.

Written by lmwong

December 16, 2010 at 4:07 pm

Bankart and Bankart variant lesion

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Classification of Bankart and Bankart variant lesions. a Bankart lesion, b bony Bankart lesion, c Perthes lesion, d ALPSA (anterior labro-ligamentous periosteal sleeveavulsion) lesion, e GLAD (glenolabral articular disruption) lesion, f HAGL (humeralavulsion of glenohumeral ligaments) lesion. (LLC anteroinferior labro-ligamentous complex, P scapular periosteum, HH humeral head, AC articular cartilage of glenoid,IGHL inferior glenohumeral ligament)

Written by lmwong

December 12, 2010 at 10:33 am

Cervical Cancer Staging

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IA = confined to cervix
IB = extension to uterus
IIA = extension to upper vagina
IIB = extension to parametrium
IIIA = extension into lower vagina
IIIB = pelvic wall (hydronephrosis)
IVA = adjacent organs
IVB = distant organs.


Written by lmwong

December 11, 2010 at 7:27 pm

AVM Spetzler-Martin Grading System

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Size (largest diameter of nidus)

  • ❤ cm = 1
  • 3-6 cm = 2
  • >6 cm = 3

Eloquence (areas of sensorimotor, language, visual, thalamus, hypothalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, cerebellar peduncles, and deep cerebellar nuclei)

  • Noneloquent = 0
  • Eloquent = 1

Venous Drainage

  • Superficial only = 0
  • Deep component = 1

Add the 3 categories to get Spetzler-Martin Grade 1-5.


Written by lmwong

October 20, 2010 at 7:39 am

Urethral Injury Types

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urethral injury typesPosterior urethra: from bladder neck, through prostate, to membranous urethra

Anterior urethra: bulbar and penile urethra

  • type 1: stretched, periurethral hematoma
  • type 2: rupture above urogenital diaphragm, extraperitoneal contrast
  • type 3: rupture below urogenital diaphragm, extraperitoneal and perinium contrast
  • type 4: bladder extending to urethra
  • Type 5: anterior urethral injury

Written by lmwong

March 31, 2010 at 2:53 pm

Posted in classification, GU, trauma